Biofeedback instruments help understand the physiological responses to stimuli of the autonomic nervous system. The EEG (Electroencephalography) will be used to measure the participants’ brain waves while showing them videos stimulating fear, happiness, sadness. During the sessions, brain activity with the specific frequencies will be recorded. After each video is played, questions will be asked to address the focus on the emotional arousal/memory recall process. In addition to that, EKG (Electrocardiography) will record the heart rates and the GSR monitor (Galvanic Skin Response) will measure the sweat gland activity related to the emotional response. The quantitative data such as EEG, EKG and GSR, surveys before and after the trainings will represent the qualitative data.
Monday - Thursday, 10:00AM - 2:00PM
- Dr. DiLauro — cdilauro (at) bergen.edu
August, 05 2019
The experimental phase can be started during the fall semester. The design is almost finalized and how the equipment is going to be set up is ready. Emails will be sent to BCC students. There will be a volunteer bias, but that is the limit of this project. There will be two groups: the control group and the treatment group. The participants will be randomly assigned to a group to avoid bias through a coin flip. By leaving it to chance, the variables will be equalized. The control group will solve 10 multiple choice critical thinking problems. The treatment group will go through a 3 minute guided meditation before solving the same 10 questions. The participants will have the electrodes on the whole time.
The only thing that needs to be worked on is the statistics part of the experiment. Rather than not giving the control group anything, it may be better to give them a placebo stimulus, such as talking. If nothing is given and only the treatment group is given a meditation, then they may think that meditation will have more of an effect than it does.
July, 22 2019
Equipment for EKG was received & tested it out for the first time.
Electrodes were used on Sarah, measuring using the ECG and EDA. EEG could not be used yet because the brainmaster program was not ready.
This whole week, the new equipments were being used and a new idea was created: “The Impact of Mindfulness Meditation on Problem Solving Skills Through Quantitative Data Analysis (EEG, EKG, EDA, Respiratory Transducer)”. The project decided to be changed, so all of the new information gathered from our gained experience could correctly be used into new findings and ideas. The materials continue to be new for the team, so we continue practicing and trying to improve ourselves.
July, 01 2019
This is one of the great articles to see how Abstract can be created.
The update on the biopac was received, but there are no materials yet. The literature review was worked on and more citations were added on the needed parts of the research.
June, 24 2019
Peer reviews were given for the research paper. The research is being edited and revised.
Worked on the introduction. Used the different research papers as reference and added more background information on brain waves. ECG and the heart pulse will be worked on for tomorrow in the introduction.
Check on status for brain masters, purchase order.
The poster asking for volunteer is being worked on. We are looking for more studies to cite in the introduction of the research paper.
We’re waiting on the electrodes order so we can test out some experiments and improve our research question.
- Gamma waves:
Today we worked on finding the references and citing parts of the research paper. We need a lot more citations for certain information. The reference section is in work. So far, we have seven citations, but there will be additional five citations. However, we will add more citations once more information added.
We’re making some progress. For tomorrow, we will try to finish the references and introduction.
We are continuing on bettering the introduction and adding more citations while we cite all the new info used in our research paper. Our goal for next week is to finish up with the introduction, as we also want to add the GSR into our study.
June, 17 2019
We will be working on our presentation for Thursday.
We set up the equipment again. The equipment couldn’t be used, but we saw how the EEG, ECG, EDA, pulse, and respiratory were set up all together. At the same time, pictures were taken of us setting up the equipment to use it in our presentation. We plan to finish the presentation by tomorrow, so we can practice on Wednesday and present on Thursday.
Keep in mind presentation should only be 5 minutes long.
Presentation is about 60% done. We need to figure out the order of the presentation with what each person will be speaking about. We got a few good photos, let us figure out if we need anymore by tomorrow.
Tim Kim and Sara will be doing a video presentation. (film on wednesday and add onto the presentation)
Today we worked on the powerpoint for Thursday’s presentation.
- The order of presenting
- Finding out how to put a video in the slides
- The information in each slide
- What each individual is in charge of during the presentation
- Since there are five members presenting, each of us will present for 1 minute.
We also cleaned up our journal by editing out a few things that we did not need and also by adding a few photos we had stored in our folders. We still need to add a few more photos still in our members’ phones.
The beginning part of the literature review was written. A rough rough draft.
Today, we polished our presentation for Thursday.
Everyone has a clear role for the presentation now and a better idea of how the presentation will go. We practiced our presentation a few times during the day and timed ourselves as well. We have one video down and just need one more for the slides to be done.
We also bounced some ideas about the poster with each other.
We’re practicing for the presentation at 1:30 pm. Sarah will record herself explaining the brain waves because she won’t be here later.
The literature review is being formatted and written. It is looking good.
It is still in the rough rough draft phase: a lot of grammar needs fixing, our methods are not definite, we have no data yet.
June, 10 2019
IRB update: Attachment 3, 4 and 5 revised and updated.
- We need to ask the professor about the Raspberry Pi and the purchase order for biopac.
- We also need the professor to look over the IRB to check what else we need to fix.
How emotions can affect memory.
Still waiting on the supplies to come.
Development of emotion recognition interface using complex EEG/ECG bio-signal for interactive contents
- Subject of the article
- Interactive systems
- This article uses videos as well to induce certain emotions such as fear, sadness, disgust, joy, and anger.
- Their experiment consisted of 30 seconds of rest followed by 90 seconds of emotion induced videos.
- They used a dark room where the participants were isolated and so they were able to completely focus on the videos being played, with videos playing and stopping every 90 seconds.
- They also shuffled around the videos so all the participants were not watching the same videos.
- How did they get accuracy percentages? (Weka) (It was found that the EEG signal alone had an accuracy of up to 69.78% and a mean accuracy of 62.28%. However, when adding the complex bio-signal from the autonomic nervous system, the accuracy reached 99.32%, with a mean accuracy of 98.56%.) We can add that using both the brainmaster and biopac can make our findings even more accurate. (reason of why we should use both brainmaster and biopac)
A preliminary investigation into the neural basis of the production effect
- We finished updating the entire IRB.
- How visual aides that induce certain emotions could help us remember certain ads.
- IRB was reviewed by our mentor.
- We finished getting all IRB documents signed in one day.
- We spent the afternoon meeting the dean, vice president, and the president of the grants department of BCC.
Our focus is now on writing the introduction of the research paper.
We got in contact with Brainmaster by phone, unfortunately the purchase order we requested did not go through due to some issues from Brainmaster. They are now aware of our situation and are currently working towards giving us access to the program.
No update on our purchase order forms.
July, 02 2019
This week we are going to finish choosing our videos.
Human Subject Protection: A Comprehensive Introduction (No Contact Hours):
We were able to find a free Human subject research course on the ACRP website. You have to create an account and purchase the course using the link above. If the certificate costs money, then you are looking at the wrong one. It should say [non-member] or [no contact hours] to be free.
Guide to get the certificate:
- Create an account on the main ACRP website.
- After you have an account, click on the link above.
- Scroll down and click [Add to Cart]
- Then click [Check-out] on the right or bottom right (Doesn’t matter).
- Next to Billing contact, choose your name. Make sure your information is accurate.
- Scroll down and on the bottom click the Terms of Service, then continue.
- Click [Submit Order] and you now purchased the course.
- Don’t close your tab.
Guide to access the course:
- After you “purchased” your course. Click [My Account] next to the website logo.
- On the right, under [My Account Links] click [My courses].
- You should see two options, click the left one.
- On the left, click on [eLearning].
- You should see your course: Human Subject Protection: A Comprehensive Introduction (No Contact Hours) In-complete.
- If you don’t see your course (which may happen) log-off and log back in.
- If you still don’t see it repeat #6 and wait a few minutes.
- Click [View Course] and complete the course.
Hopefully, we finish choosing our videos today. We discussed the methods again because we STILL do not have the materials we need to test the instruments. So far, we choose:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Un6KQLk64Oo (Japanese game show)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RDn0og5Vldg (lights out)
- Still no update on our purchase order.
- Still no update on brainmaster renewal.
We will be working on our post-questionnaire. There will be two separate questionnaires for comedy and horror.
We need to organize our literature review, so we made a Lit Review Spreadsheet. We separated the EEG and ECG sources because so far we have not found any journals that use both instruments.
Post questionnaires for both videos are complete. We just need to proofread both sets of questions and see which ones would work.
- Crash course on Memory
Most important information:
- Making memory Process:
- Recall memory:
_____ is the capital city of Greece
- Recognition memory:
What is the capital city of Greece?
Example, reviewing materials studied during the year for the final exam.
A study studying brain behavior from EEG scans in Learning and Memory Recall
The study provides brain mapping of the regions and the brain waves involved in the process of learning.
Also, it provides additional info on successful memory recall!
- The process of Memory Formation: Theory of 2 sociologists (R. Atkinson and R. Shiffrin)
We are working on the IRB document. We are still proofreading the questionnaires. We can watch the videos and test the questions ourselves.
We need to figure out what the raspberry pi is/how it works. (For holding our data/security)
Most of the IRB is complete for 2019-2020, we need to finish the Application and Attachment 1 (request for purchase order?).
We still have no update on our personal purchase order.
May, 29 2019
Today we worked on the pre survey and a little bit of the post survey. The post survey can not be completed until we figure out which video clips will be shown.
Brainstorm ideas for the experiment process:
- Watch three videos then give the test
- Watch two videos then give the test
- Give test after each video
- Take pre-survey, divide the groups depending on which films they watch the most (one film each)
If we show the participants three different videos each, but the second and the third video will be affected because they will know that we are giving them a memory test. To prevent that, we should give each participant to watch only one video, randomly selecting any three of the videos. In that case, we need a lot of participants and that’s unlikely. The only way we can solve this problem is by testing the EEG, EKG, and GSR, but we do not have enough materials to continue.
- Pre Survey: generic questions
- Session: video and quizzes
- Post Survey: questions based on memory
How to use EEG cap:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FdzY9M0Ii_0 (Virtual reality)
For now, we will be using only two videos:
Horror and Comedy
What we need to test:
- Whether to watch two videos or three
- Test where our location to watch videos and answer questions
Post survey ideas:
- Separate surveys for each video or one general survey
- Survey given orally or on paper.
- Orally - pros: we can see and compare memory with the exact time of scary moment on video. Cons: depending on who asks the questions could affect answers.
- Relaxation - Video 1 - Test - Relaxation - Video 2 - test
- Video: 5 minutes
- Relaxation: 5 minutes
- Test: 5 minutes
- Total experiment process: 30 minutes (not including the setup process)
Divide into 2 groups
- group 1 with comedy
- group 2 with horror
Things to study: How memory works, Research on memory, what do good memory look like on the EEG.
Homework: Pick a video for horror and comedy and share next week
- https://www.youtube.com/user/VineAholic (vines)
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Un6KQLk64Oo (Japanese game show)
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fF6gExZu-2M (unknown caller)
- https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0ntBMtAa1ecIP3Yu5lktCg (prank)
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RDn0og5Vldg (lights out)*
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AdYaTa_lOf4 (teddy bear)
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XOQnYQyxRAo (Very bloody, warned)
Find about IRB - Human research ethical approval
May, 22 2019
We started the day by bouncing ideas around with each other as well as attempting to create the pre-questionnaire. We are still trying to figure out the final draft of our research. We also found out the brainmaster program expired and needs to be renewed. Towards the end of the session, Dr. DiLauro showed us how the EKG works through BioPac and the Alienware laptop. Although we didn’t get the accurate data due to shortage in equipment, it was still interesting to see the process.
Today we started the purchase order request form. Also, we started looking into why the brain reacts with fear while something scares us. (https://www.businessinsider.com/what-happen s-when-you-are-scared-2015-10). The link explains clearly what part of the brain are affected, and how that helped the human population years ago, and how that effect has evolved.
- Social media, videos (horror, comedy, sad) How watching different genres of videos could affect the mood of a person.
- How emotions triggered by different genres of movies affect our internal body (brain waves, heartbeat, perspiration)
- For BioPac:
Lesson 7 (testing) and 9 (table)
- Biofeedback instruments:
- Brain anatomy:
- Brain waves:
- Brain waves control Memories:
- How can scary movies identify the brain circuits for the process of fear:
- Next Step:
Research on actual papers on the effects of horrors/comic movies
- New/final topic:
- Exploring the Internal World By Stimulating the Brain Memory With Visual Aides.
- Examination of Memory By Stimulating the Brain and Body Through Certain Visual Aides.
We used the whiteboard to organize our experiment. We thought of different variables that could affect the experiment. We spent a few minutes watching different possible videos we could use for the experiment. (E.g. Up, Minions, Nightmare on Elm Street, The Ring, The Grudge)
We tested the virtual reality equipment:
- Pros: the outside environment can be blocked out, better horror reality, theatre like vision
- Cons: possibly not working with other equipment, light being an issue.
- Have the participants go through a quick memorization test, then show them the video, right afterwards give them another quick memorization test (similar but not exactly the same).
- Pre survey directing what kind of video will be shown?
- Open room vs. Closed room
- Virtual reality
- Memories play a role in recalling memories:
[Experimental Design] The project in separated into four parts as shown above. (Left to right) First box is the consent form and the number that has to be assigned to the participants. Second box is the pre-survey: the questions we’re going to ask before the experiment in conducted (in this step we will eliminate important obstacles in our study). The third box is the main experiment; the ideas and models are written on the board/journals. The fourth box is the post-survey: the questions after the experiment. We will need to test the equipment before we can move on to the next stage of our project.